Since the commencement of commercial production, ASC has succeeded in finding domestic and 

export markets for its product including Southeast Asian and Far East Asian countries.

ASC is committed to be a global producer of quality basic chemicals. With professional, committed staff, the company

is dedicated to supply top-quality products and services.

To meet or exceed the expectations of customers, ASC works as a team to constantly strive for the best.


 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Process
  2. Chlor Alkali Process
  3. EDC / VCM Process
  4. PVC Process

PROCESS PRODUCT


ASC’s state-of-the-art integrated Chlor-Alkali to Polyvinyl Chloride production complex consists of three main processes.

In the first process, the Chlor-Alkali Process, caustic soda is the main product along with chlorine gas, hydrogen gas and sodium hypochlorite solution as by-products.


In the Chlor-Alkali plant, common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is dissolved in water and purified. The purified concentrated salt solution is then electrolyzed utilizing the sophisticated cationic exchange membrane technology developed by Asahi Glass Company (AGC) to produce caustic soda, chlorine gas and hydrogen gas. Sodium hypochlorite is a derivative product obtained by reacting caustic soda and chlorine. ASC enjoys the benefit of the most environmentally friendly Chlor-Alkali technology consuming minimum energy, producing no pollution and delivering superior product quality.

The second process, the EDC/VCM Process, produces vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) as the main product. Commercial EDC/VCM Process consists of two type of processes, the Direct Chlorination process and the Oxy-Chlorination process. In Direct Chlorination process, chlorine generated in the Chlor-Alkali process is reacted with ethylene to produce ethylene dichloride (EDC), an industrial solvent used mainly to produce VCM. 
In the Oxy-Chlorination process, ethylene, hydrochloric acid and oxygen are reacted to give ethylene dichloride.


Ethylene dichloride is then subjected to “cracking” process to give VCM and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as by-product. Some of the produced hydrochloric acid is utilized in the Oxy-Chlorination process to produce VCM, while the rest is delivered to customers.

And in the third process, the PVC Process, VCM is polymerized to produce polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin in batch reactors. After polymerization, VCM is stripped from the resin and the resin is finaly dried to produce high quality PVC resin which fulfills the international health and hygiene standards and technically satisfies highly demanding applications.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHLOR ALKALI PROCESS
 
ASC Chlor Alkali process makes use of cation exchange membrane technology, which is the most advanced, very efficient and the most environmentally friendly chlor alkali technology producing high quality products fulfilling a wide range of demanding applications. The chlor alkali process involves the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl solution or brine) in a membrane cell producing chlorine (Cl2) and its co-products caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2).

In the membrane cell, the anode chamber and cathode chamber are separated by a cation-permeable membrane. Saturated brine (NaCl solution) which consists of Na+ and Cl ions is fed to the anode chamber.

A DC current is passed through the cell.

At the anode, the chloride ions (Cl) in brine solution (NaCl) are oxidized to chlorine (Cl2):
            2 NaCl (aq) + 2 H2O (l) → 2 NaOH (aq)  + Cl2 (g) + 2 H+   + 2 e

And at the cathode, hydrogen ions (H+) in water is reduced to hydrogen gas (H2):
            2 H+  +  2 e  →  H2 (g)

The ion-permeable membrane at the center of the cell plays the important role of allowing the sodium ions (Na+) in the anode chamber to pass to the cathod chamber where they react with the hydroxide ions (OH) to produce caustic soda (NaOH).

The overall reaction for the electrolysis of brine is thus:

            2NaCl (aq)  + 2H2O (l) → Cl2 (g) + H2 (g) + 2NaOH (aq)

Another product, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is produced when chlorine (Cl2) is reacted with caustic soda (NaOH).

            Cl2 + 2 NaOH → NaCl + NaClO + H2O

Because of the corrosive nature of the chlorine produced, the anode has to be made from a non-reactive metal such as titanium, whereas the cathode can be made from Nickel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EDC/VCM PROCESS



Ethylene is currently the predominant raw material for vinyl chloride production. The commercially practiced vinyl chloride production involves a balanced combination of Direct Chlorination (DC) and Oxy-Chlorination (OC) processes.

In the Direct Chlorination process, ethylene is first chlorinated to produce ethylene dichloride (CH2Cl-CH2Cl).

            CH2=CH2  +  Cl2  → CH2Cl-CH2Cl                                        (1)

Ethylene dichloride is subsequently subjected to thermal cracking process (pyrolyzed) to produce vinyl chloride (CH2=CHCl)  and hydrogen chloride (HCl).

            CH2Cl-CH2Cl  → CH2=CHCl  + HCl                                      (2)

In the Oxy-Chlorination process, ethylene, hydrochloric acid (HCl) from Reaction (2) and oxygen (O2) are reacted to form ethylene dichloride (CH2Cl-CH2Cl).

            CH2=CH2  +  Cl2 + ½ O2 → CH2Cl-CH2Cl + H2O                  (3)

Adding Reactions (1), (2) and (3) gives the overall reaction for balanced process:

            2 CH2=CH2  +  Cl2 + ½ O2 → 2 CH2=CHCl + H2O                (4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PVC PROCESS



The majority of PVC resin production nowadays is using suspension polymerization method. In a typical suspension polymerization, a known quantity of demineralized water is charged into a pressure vessel and other polymerization ingredients such as initiator, buffer and protective colloid are added. The vessel is then sealed and evacuated and vinyl chloride (VCM) is introduced into the vessel. Protective colloid action and agitation on the reaction mixture promote the formation of micro-droplets of VCM in water.

The vessel is heated up to the polymerization temperature, activating the initiator which starts the polymerization reaction. Once the polymerization effectively starts, heat is evolved. This heat is removed by cooling water in the vessel jacket. Polymerization reaction usually runs up to a VCM to PVC conversion of more than 75%, when there is no more free VCM phase remains.

At the end of polymerization reaction, PVC slurry (PVC resin particles in water) is discharged out of the reaction vessel and the remaining unreacted VCM is stripped from the PVC slurry in a highly effective stripping column. The slurry is then centrifuged to separate most of the water, resulting in PVC resin which still contains small amount of water, which is then introduced into the dryer to give dry PVC resin ready to be delivered to customers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Caustic Soda (NaOH)
  2. Chlorine (Cl2)
  3. Ethylene Dichloride (EDC)
  4. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
  5. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
  6. Sodium Hypochlorite (NaClO)
  7. Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM)

Caustic soda is an essential raw material and process chemical in many industrial operations. ASC delivers Caustic Soda in 48% solution (Liquid Caustic Soda) and in solid form (Flake Caustic Soda, 98%).

Pulp and paper is among the largest application for caustic soda worldwide, where it is used as a raw material in the pulping and bleaching process, in de-inking of waste paper, and in water treatment.

In textile industry, caustic soda is used to process cotton and in the dyeing process of synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester.

In soap and detergent industry, caustic soda is used in saponification, the chemical process that converts vegetable oils into soap. Caustic soda is used to manufacture anionic surfactants, a crucial component in most detergent and cleaning products.

Oil and Gas industry uses caustic soda in the exploration, production and processing of petroleum and natural gas, where it removes objectionable smells originating from hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and mercaptans.

In aluminium production, caustic soda is used to dissolve bauxite ore, the raw material for aluminium production.

In Chemical Processing Industries (CPI), caustic soda is used as raw materials or process chemicals for a wide range of downstream products, such as plastics, pharmaceuticals, solvents, synthetic fabrics, adhesives, dyes, coatings, inks, among others. It is also used in the neutralization of acidic waste streams and the scrubbing of acidic components from off-gases.

Small volume applications for caustic soda include household cleaning products, water treatment, cleaners for beverage bottles, home soap making, among others.

In soap and detergent industry, caustic soda is used in saponification, the chemical process that converts vegetable oils into soap. Caustic soda is used to manufacture anionic surfactants, a crucial component in most detergent and cleaning products.

Oil and Gas industry uses caustic soda in the exploration, production and processing of petroleum and natural gas, where it removes objectionable smells originating from hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and mercaptans.

In aluminium production, caustic soda is used to dissolve bauxite ore, the raw material for aluminium production.

In Chemical Processing Industries (CPI), caustic soda is used as raw materials or process chemicals for a wide range of downstream products, such as plastics, pharmaceuticals, solvents, synthetic fabrics, adhesives, dyes, coatings, inks, among others. It is also used in the neutralization of acidic waste streams and the scrubbing of acidic components from off-gases.

Small volume applications for caustic soda include household cleaning products, water treatment, cleaners for beverage bottles, home soap making, among others.

 

Chlorine is widely used in making many everyday products and essential for a healthy human life. It is vital for water disinfection for producing safe drinking water all over the world. Chlorine is an important chemical for water purification in water treatment plants. Chlorine in water is highly effective as a disinfectant against Escherichia coli and used to kill bacteria and other microbes in public swimming pools.

Eighty-five percent of medicines either contain chlorine or use chlorine in the production process.Chlorine is also extensively used in the production of paper products, dyestuffs, textiles, petroleum products, antiseptics, insecticides, food, solvents, paints, plastics, and many other consumer products.

Ethylene dichloride or 1,2-dichloroethane was once called Dutch oil in honor of the Dutch scientists who first synthesized this compound from ethylene and chlorine gases in the late 18th century. Nowadays it is mainly used to produce vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), the major raw material for PVC production. It is also used as an intermediate for other organic chemical compounds and as a solvent.


Hydrochloric acid is a co-product in the process of EDC cracking. Some of hydrochloric acid is used in Oxy-Chlorination process to produce EDC while the rest is delivered to customers in the form of 33% solution.
 
ASC produce high quality hydrochloric acid with applications ranging from highly demanding applications such as pharmaceutical and food industry, for preparation of drinking water, as a raw material for consumable products, down to more general industrial applications such as for metal pickling, ion-exchange regeneration, raw material for the production of numerous inorganic and organic compounds, pH-regulation and neutralisation of process streams.

 

Polyvinyl chloride is the third most widely produced plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene. Over 50% of PVC manufactured is used in construction, because it is cheap, durable, and easy to assemble.

PVC piping, first introduced in 1952, is the largest single market for PVC. Roughly half of the world's polyvinyl chloride resin manufactured annually is used for producing pipes. Its light weight, high strength, and low reactivity make it particularly well-suited for pipes in various municipal and industrial applications as well as for sanitary sewer pipes. PVC is biologically and chemically resistant, making it the plastic of choice for most household sewerage pipes and other pipe applications where corrosion would limit the use of metal.

With the addition of impact modifiers and stabilizers, PVC becomes a popular material for window and door frames. By adding plasticizers, it can become flexible enough to be used in cabling applications as insulation on electric wires. PVC fabric is waterproof and commonly used in raincoats, shoes, jackets and bags.

PVC has a long history of safe medical applications and has helped saving many patients in intensive medical care. PVC applications in medical tubings, blood bags and a host of other applications in medical equipments are widely acknowledged contributions of the material to mankind.

 
Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is formed when caustic soda (NaOH) and chlorine (Cl2) react. ASC delivers sodium hypochlorite to customers in the form of 10% solution. It is widely used bleaching, disinfecting and oxidizing agents.Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in swimming pools to disinfect the water and to oxidize pollutants in the water.
 
Sodium hypochlorite is also commonly used in the pretreatment of cooling water to prevent biofouling in a cooling water system which involves piping, heat exchangers, cooling towers, etc. Drinking water and process water are produced from ground water or surface water, which can contain large amounts of micro-organisms. The water needs to be disinfected to prevent the spreading of pathogenic micro-organisms and to prevent biofouling in general. In many developed countries sodium hypochlorite is used for the disinfection of drinking water.Sodium hypochlorite is also widely used in waste water treatment. After most impurities in waste water have been removed by other technical means such as biofiltration, just before being discharged, wastewater is treated with sodium hypochlorite.Cleaning and disinfection procedures using sodium hypochlorite is a well known practice in the food, beverage, and dairy industry.
 
Sodium hypochlorite is used in many products for household cleaning and disinfection. Other uses are industrial cleaning (food and beverage industry, kitchens and catering), and industrial laundry cleaning (washing of clothing for hospitals and in some factories). In the textile and pulp & paper industries, sodium hypochlorite is often used for bleaching purposes. Hypochlorite oxidation of starch is one of the most useful reactions developed for the modification of starch. Oxidation introduces an increasing number of carbonyl and carboxyl groups into the starch molecules, which in turn cause changes in the chemical and physical properties.

Vinyl chloride is the organochloride with the formula CH2=CHCl. It is also called vinyl chloride monomer or VCM. This colourless compound is an important industrial chemical mainly used to produce the polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Vinyl chloride is a chemical intermediate, not a final product and hence there are no end products that use vinyl chloride in its monomer form.

 

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Phone : (021) 521 1181, Fax (021) 521 1181
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